Poultry farming equipment refers to the specialized machinery, tools, and internal facilities used in the production process of chicks, breeder chickens, broiler chickens, and laying hens. Poultry farming can be divided into two types: free-range and cage-reared (see Chicken). Specialized poultry farming includes breeder farms, layer farms, broiler farms, and so on. Poultry farming equipment includes heating equipment, ventilation equipment, water supply equipment, feeding equipment, egg collection equipment, manure removal equipment, cages, lighting equipment, etc.
- Heating Equipment
As long as the goal of heating and insulation can be achieved, electric heating, hot water heating, coal stoves, and even heating beds such as fire beds and kang beds can be used. However, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that coal stoves are dirty and prone to gas poisoning and must have a chimney. When designing the poultry house, insulation and heat preservation should be considered.
- Ventilation Equipment
Mechanical ventilation is necessary for closed poultry houses. According to the direction of the airflow inside the house, ventilation can be divided into horizontal and vertical ventilation. Horizontal ventilation refers to the direction of airflow inside the house perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the chicken house. Vertical ventilation refers to the concentration of a large number of fans in one place, making the airflow inside the house parallel to the longitudinal axis of the chicken house. Research and practice since 1988 have shown that vertical ventilation is more effective and can eliminate and overcome the dead corners of ventilation and the phenomenon of small and uneven wind speeds in the house caused by horizontal ventilation, while eliminating the disadvantage of cross-infection between chicken houses caused by horizontal ventilation.
- Water Supply Equipment
From the perspective of saving water and preventing bacterial contamination, nipple drinkers are the most ideal water supply equipment, and high-quality non-leaking drinkers must be selected. The V-shaped water trough is still the most commonly used water supply equipment for cage-reared broilers and laying hens, which provides continuous water supply, but the water trough needs to be cleaned every day. Hanging tower automatic drinkers can be used for raising chicks on the flat ground, which is both hygienic and water-saving.
- Feeding Equipment
Feed troughs are mainly used, with long troughs for cage-reared chickens and hanging buckets for raising chicks on the flat ground. The shape of the feed trough has a great influence on the scattering of feed when chickens eat. If the feed trough is too shallow and has no guardrail, it will cause a lot of feed waste.
- Egg Collection Equipment
Poultry farms with high degree of mechanization use conveyors for automatic egg collection, which has high efficiency but a high rate of breakage. Manual egg collection is usually used by small-scale farmers in October.
- Manure Removal Equipment
Small-scale poultry farms usually use manual regular manure removal, while large-scale farms can use mechanical manure removal.
Wire mesh can be used for raising chicks, or a multi-layered three-dimensional brooding device can be used. For raising adult chickens, overlapped or stepped cages are commonly used, and farmers usually adopt direct conversion to laying hen cages at 60-70 days old. Laying hens are generally cage-reared, and there are many domestic manufacturers of chicken cages to choose from according to actual conditions.
- Lighting Equipment
Ordinary light bulbs are commonly used for lighting in China. The trend is to use energy-saving lamps.
- Incubation equipment
Refers to the items needed during the incubation process, including incubators, hatchery machines, incubator accessories, specialized items for hatchery rooms, heating equipment, humidification equipment, and various measuring systems, among others.
- Disinfection equipment
Agricultural sprayers, air pumps, etc.
- Immune and treatment equipment
Continuous injectors, vaccination needles, etc.
- Debeaking equipment
Electric debeaking machines, electric branding irons, etc.
- Weighing equipment
Spring scales, beam scales, electronic scales, etc.
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